Australia

Australia:

 

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About: Australia is the sixth largest country on earth. The size of Australia is  7 692 024 km2 accounting to five percent of the world’s land area of 149, 450, 000 km2. Although Australia is the smallest continental land mass, it is the world’s largest island.

Origin: The name “Australia” has the origin from Latin australis meaning southern which dates back to 2nd century. Matthew Flinders, an explorer, named the land Terra Australis, which later  got abbreviated to the current form. Dutch named it Nova Hollandicus or New Holland. Later Flinders renamed the land Australia in a chart compiled in 1804 whilst serving as prisoner by the French in Mauritius. In 1824 the British Admiralty finally accepted Australia as official name. 

Modern History: The federalisation of the Australia began in 1901, which gave the path to the states of Australia a formal relationship for the first time. During initial years, Australian affairs followed those of Britain and America, as wars were declared on common enemies. In 1986, The Australia Act was made which declared Australia a completely independent nation, hence removing it from the shadow of British politics. In 1999 a referendum was held in Australia to become a republic and move away from the English monarchy which was defeated by 55% to 45%.

Capital and Cities: Canberra is Australia’s capital and its largest city is Sydney. The  other major cities of Australia are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.

The list of states and the territories are as follows:

States:

Sl No Name Capital
1 New South Wales (NSW) Sydney
2 Queensland Brisbane
3 Victoria Melbourne
4 South Australia Adelaide
5 Western Australia Perth
6 Tasmania Hobart

Oceania Territories:

Name Capital
American Samoa Pago Pago
Ashmore and Cartier Islands External territory of Australia
Australia Canberra
Australia Antarctic Territory
Baker Island
Christmas Island 
Cocos Island
Cook Islands Avarua
Coral Sea Islands
Fiji Suva
French Polynesia Papeete
Guam Hagatna
Howland Island
Jervis Bay Island  
Jarvis Island
Johnston Atoll
Kingman Reef
Kiribati South Tarawa
Marshall Islands Majuro
Micronesia Palikir
Midway Atoll
Nauru Yaren 
New Caledonia Noumea
New Zealand Wellington
Niue Alofi
Norfolk Island Kingston
Northern Mariana Islands Saipan
Northern Territory Saipan
Palau Ngerulmud
Palmyra Atoll
Papua New Guinea Port Moresby
Pitcairn Islands Adamstown
Samoa Apia
Solomon Islands Honiara
Territory of Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Tokelau Nukunonu 
Tonga Nukuʻalofa
Tuvalu Funafuti
Vanuatu Port Vila
Wake Island Insular area of USA
Wallis and Futuna Mata-Utu

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